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Miscellaneous useful tips on htaccess

A collection of useful .htaccess codes.
To work all of these, add the following line at the beginning to your .htaccess file.


Options +FollowSymlinks 
RewriteEngine on
RewriteBase /

  • Set PHP Variables

    
    php_value <key> <val>
    
    php_value upload_max_filesize 50M
    php_value max_execution_time 240	
    
    
  • Custom Error Pages

    
    ErrorDocument 400 /400.html
    ErrorDocument 401 http://error.yourdomain.com/mordor.html
    ErrorDocument 403 /403.html
    ErrorDocument 404 /errors/halflife3.html
    ErrorDocument 405 /405.html
    ErrorDocument 408 /408.html
    ErrorDocument 414 /414.html
    ErrorDocument 500 "Houston, we have a problem."
    ErrorDocument 502 /502.html
    ErrorDocument 504 /504.html
    
    
  • Allow Cross-Domain Fonts

    CDN-served webfonts might not work in Firefox or IE due to [CORS](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross-origin_resource_sharing). The following snippet from [alrra](https://github.com/h5bp/server-configs-apache/issues/32) should make it happen.

    
    <IfModule mod_headers.c>
        <FilesMatch "\.(eot|otf|ttc|ttf|woff|woff2)$">
            Header set Access-Control-Allow-Origin "*"
        </FilesMatch>
    </IfModule>	
    
    
  • Auto UTF-8 Encode

    Use UTF-8 encoding for anything served text/plain or text/html

    
    AddDefaultCharset utf-8	
    
    

    Force UTF-8 for a number of file formats

    
    AddCharset utf-8 .atom .css .js .json .rss .vtt .xml	
    
    
  • Switch to Another PHP Version

    If you’re on a shared host, chances are there are more than one version of PHP installed, and sometimes you want a specific version for your website. For example, [Laravel](https://github.com/laravel/laravel) requires PHP >= 5.4. The following snippet should switch the PHP version for you.

    
    AddHandler application/x-httpd-php55 .php	
    
    

    Alternatively, you can use AddType

    
    AddType application/x-httpd-php55 .php	
    	
    
  • Disable Internet Explorer Compatibility View

    Compatibility View in IE may affect how some websites are displayed. The following snippet should force IE to use the Edge Rendering Engine and disable the Compatibility View.

    
    <IfModule mod_headers.c>
        BrowserMatch MSIE is-msie
        Header set X-UA-Compatible IE=edge env=is-msie
    </IfModule>	
    	
    
  • Append / Prepend Files

    Rather than having to call / include a file you need on every single page, you can have them automatically prepended (top of file) or appended (bottom of file) automatically through your .htaccess file.

    
    php_value auto_prepend_file "/real/path/to/file/functions.php"
    php_value auto_append_file "/real/path/to/file/footer.php"	
    	
    
  • PHP Error Logging

    Log errors to a file, and prevent showing them to the user. Make sure that the file exists and youre able to write to it.

    
    # display no errs to user
    php_flag display_startup_errors off
    php_flag display_errors off
    php_flag html_errors off
    # log to file
    php_flag log_errors on
    php_value error_log /location/to/php_error.log	
    	
    
  • Subdirectories URL Internally Redirect to Query String

    The URL in the browser would be:

    http://css-tricks.com/index.php/teachers/a/

    The actual page rendered by the server would be:

    http://css-tricks.com/index.php?search=teachers&sort=a

    
    RewriteEngine on
    RewriteRule ^index/([^/]+)/([^/]+).php /page.php?search=$1&sort=$2 [NC]	
    
    
  • Temporary Maintenance using Mod_Rewrite

    
    # Maintenance Redirection
    # Replace 555\.555\.555\.555 with your own IP address
    # Uncomment first conditional to turn off the redirection
    # RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^$a
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !maintenance.html
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !(styles|images).+$
    RewriteCond %{REMOTE_ADDR} !^555\.555\.555\.555$
    RewriteCond %{REMOTE_ADDR} !^127\.0\.0\.1$
    RewriteRule (.*) /maintenance.html [R,L]	
    	
    

    This code makes it easy to temporarily take down a website for updates. Replace the “555” line with your own IP address so that you’ll still be able to view the website as normal while everyone else gets redirected. Images and styles are allowed to pass through the filter as well.

    or,

    
    # Redirect all traffic to maintenance.html file
    RewriteEngine on
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !/maintenance.html$
    RewriteCond %{REMOTE_ADDR} !^123\.123\.123\.123
    RewriteRule $ /maintenance.html [R=302,L] 	
    	
    
  • Forcing scripts to display as source code

    
    RemoveHandler cgi-script .pl .cgi .php .py
    AddType text/plain .pl .cgi .php .py 	
    	
    
  • Ensuring media files are downloaded instead of played

    
    AddType application/octet-stream .zip .mp3 .mp4 	
    	
    

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